Timeline

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Position of the Armies on 22 August. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection
Retreat of the Germans, 09 September. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection

1911

Compulsory military training was commenced in Australia for all boys born in 1894. The following year all boys 12-17 years started compulsory military training, The aim was to have a militia strength of 80,000 men by 1916.[1]

Mid 1912

A local militia was reformed with Ballarat east named the 70th Infantry and Ballarat West the 71st Infantry.[2]

28 June 1914

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary, and his wife, Sophie, were assassinated by a Serb-backed Bosnian nationalist. This was the trigger that sent Europe to war.


30 July 1914

Australia makes preparations for war. The Royal Australian Navy sends HMAS Australia from Hervey Bay to Sydney to refuel and rearm.


31 July 1914

The Australian Governor-General cabled Prime Minister Cook (then electioneering in Ballarat) to suggest a cabinet meeting in order to tell the Imperial Government what support would be expected from Australia.[3]


01 August 1914

German troops enter Luxembourg. The following day the Germans present Belgium with a note, drafted on 26 July, that the German army intended to march through Belgium to 'anticipate' a French attack.[4]


02 August 1914

Albert, King of Belgium, rejects the German and ultimatum.[5]


04 August 1914

Germany invades neutral Belgium. [6]HMAS

England declares war on Germany.

Australia left Australia, returning five years later.

05 August 1915

War was declared in Australia.[7]


07 August 1914

Ballarat's 70th Infantry deployed to Queenscliff. Victoria us under the command of Lt Col William Bolton.


14 August 1914

Lt Col William Bolton was ordered to raise the 8th Battalion AIF with troops raised from Ballarat, Ararat, the Western District and the Melbourne suburb of Surrey Hills.


21 August 1914

The Ballarat 70th Infantry was replaced at Queenscliff by the 71st Infantry.


10 August 1914

Recruiting starts in Australia. [8]


22 August 1914

The first shot of tWorld War One was fiired during the Battle of Mons.


24 October 1914

The first transports carrying Australian troops arrived in King George Sound, Western Australia. [9]


5-10 September 1914

Battle of the Marne


19 October - 21 November 1914

First Battle of Ypres.[10]Research by J. Grinlaw.</ref>>Ypres and the Battle of Ypres, Michelin, France, 1919.</ref>


5 November 1914

Turkey enters war as a German ally.


30 November 1914

The first convoy of Australian and New Zealand troops reached the Suez Canal.[11]


10th December 1914

The Germans take Hill 60 in Belgium from the French.[12]


April 1915

Poisonous gas was first used in Flanders against Ypres. The smell of chlorine gas was likened to a mixture of pineapple and pepper, the result as asphyxiation. [13]

Wave of Asphyyxiating Gas Advancing Towards French Trenches. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection


22 April - 24 May 1915

Second Battle of Ypres.[14]


25 April 1915

The Australian Imperial Army (AIF) first went into action when they landed at Gallipoli , Turkey. [15]

Position of the Armies on 21 September. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection
Situation of 22 September. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection
Plan of the German Trenches at Thiepval. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection
Battle of the Somme. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection

May 1915

The Australian Mining Corps was formed "to serve a the Dardenelles and elsewhere". The Corps were centralised in Casula, New South Wales. Individual sections from all Australian States were established with committess set up with special officers empowered to select recruits from miners already enlisted. [16]

29 May 1915

The Turks let off the first mine explosion at Gallipoli, at Quinn's Post. On the same day General William Birdwood requests miners be found from the ranks. [17]

06-13 August 1915

22,000 sick and wounded were evacuated from ANZAC Cove. [18]


25-28 September 1915

Battle of Loos

October 1915

The formation of a Miners Corps for active service is the latest phase of the recruitment movement in Victoria. Already the miners have distinguished themselves at Gallipolli, and so valuable is their work in trench construction and sapping operations, in addition to fighting that the Minister of Defence de-fence decided to take the necesusary steps organise a miners' corps. As the aoutcome some of that resolution the City Hall althorities saturday, received a telgram from the Assistant Adjutant-General on a the subject. The message was worded as follows:-"'Re Miners' Corps. Please arrange to get 50 recruits at once, if possible.[19]


December 1915

Gallipoli evacuation begins

Tunnelling beneath German Defences at Messines had begun.[20]


19 December 1915

The last of the men at Gallipoli were evacuated.[21]


1916

The gas Phosgene was first used against the French. It smelt like rotten fish and attacked the heart and bloodstream leaving no outward sign on the body.[22]

08 March 1916

The combined corps of 1600 embarked at Fremantle under the leadership of Lieutenant-Colonel Cecil Fewtrell on the Ulysses. A collision with an unchartered reed required the vessel to be towed back to the mainlaind for repairs, and the ship was nicknamed the "Useless".[23]

01 April 1916

The Australian Mining Corp left Australia for the Western Front.[24]

May 1916

Three companies of the Australian Mining Corps detrained on the Western Front at Bailleul, where they joined three companies of Canadians and one company of New Zealanders.[25]

05 May 1916

The Australian Mining Corps laneded at Marseilles, France and entrained reaching Hazebrouck, France on 08 May.[26]

26 May 1916

The French losses at Verdun were close to 200,000.[27]

Verdun, Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection


2 June 1916 to 14 June 1916

Battle of Mont Sorrel (Battle of Hill 62) - a localized World War One conflict between three divisions of the British Second Army and three divisions of the German Fourth Army in the Ypres Salient, near Ypres, Belgium. The Battle of Mount Sorrel took place along a ridge between Hooge and Zwartelee. The crest line of Mount Sorrel, nearby Tor Top (Hill 62) and Hill 61 rose approximately 30 meters higher than the shallow ground at Zillebeke, affording the occupying force excellent observation over the salient, the town of Ypres and approach routes. [28]

1 July 1916

The First Battle of The Somme opened in France. [29]


19 and 20 July 1916

Battle of Fromelles


November 1916

Twenty men died in a single blow at Hill 70.[30]


1917

Mustard gas was first used. It was fired as shells by both sides until the end of the war. Mustard gas was described as sweet smelling. It sometimes took several days for blisters to appear on the body, while the lungs slowly corroded.[31]


March - April 1917

Defense of Amiens


06 April 1917

The United States joined the Allied cause angered by continued German aggression.


April 1917

Battle of Arras


June 1917

Battle of Messines


7th June, 1917

Close to one million pounds of ammonal, distributed in 21 mines along a 9 mile section of the Messines-Wytschaete Ridge, were detonated at 3.10 am beneath the German front to begin the battle to capture the Messines ridge.

Nineteen of the twentyone mine detonated on a 10 mile front. A tota of 500 tones of high explosives 'earthquaked' the ridge in a spectacle that at war correspondent reported as the 'most diabolical splendour I have ever seen.' Hill 60, the highest point on the ridge, was the centre of the battle. With the explosion the well-hated salient had finally ceased to exist. After this engagement mining on the Western Front virtually ceased on both sides.[32]


Mid-1917

The 2nd Tunnelling Company moved to Nieuport.[33]


03 July to 06 November 1917

Third Battle of Ypres.[34]

05 September 1917

Engineers and Miners' Corps. — Major Couchman was in attendance at the Ballarat East, Town Hall yesterday morning to enlist those desirous of joining the Engineers'. Pioneers', and Miners' Corps. Four young men their in their names.[35]


30 October 1917

The ANZAC Mounted Division rode onto Beersheeba, the following day they charged.[36]


November 1917

Battle of Cambrai


April 1918

Battle of the Lys


08 August 1918

Australian and Canadian troops spearheaded an Allied attack at Amiens on the Somme. This battle pushed the Germans into retreat.

11 November 1918

The Germans sign an armistice that ended the fighting.

January 1919

A peace conference opened in Paris to bring World War One to a former close.

April 1921

The Australian Imperial Forces (AIF) ceased to exist.[37]


References

  1. The Colonel IN The Lamplight: Newsletter of the Ballarat Historical Society, Vol 5. No. 2, March-April 2015.
  2. The Colonel IN The Lamplight: Newsletter of the Ballarat Historical Society, Vol 5. No. 2, March-April 2015.
  3. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p18.
  4. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p18.
  5. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p18.
  6. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p18.
  7. The Colonel IN The Lamplight: Newsletter of the Ballarat Historical Society, Vol 5. No. 2, March-April 2015.
  8. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p20.
  9. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p22.
  10. Research by J. Grinlaw.
  11. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p22.
  12. http://www.amosa.org.au/schools/mhp/ww1/Hill%2060.pdf, accessed 25 April 2014.
  13. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p70.
  14. Research by J. Grinlaw.
  15. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p34.
  16. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  17. Finlayson, Damien, Crumps and Camophlets, Big Sky Publishing, N.S.W., p. 11.
  18. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p60.
  19. Ballarat Courier, 21 October 1915.
  20. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p88.
  21. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p64.
  22. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p70.
  23. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  24. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  25. Barton, Peter et el, Beneath Flanders Fields McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal & Kingston and Ithaca, 2004.
  26. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  27. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p69.
  28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Mont_Sorrel, accessed 17/07/2014.
  29. Perry, Warren, The School of Mines and Industries, Ballarat, Ballarat School of Mines, Ballarat, 1984, p. 245.
  30. https://www.awm.gov.au/sites/default/files/phantom-soldiers-tunellers.pdf, accessed 05 January 2014.
  31. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p70.
  32. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  33. https://www.awm.gov.au/sites/default/files/phantom-soldiers-tunellers.pdf, accessed 05 January 2014.
  34. Research by J. Grinlaw.
  35. Ballarat Star, 6 September 1917.
  36. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p70.
  37. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p130.



--Cgervasoni (talk) 10:05, 4 March 2015 (AEDT)