Casualty & Convalescence

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Cartoon by Ted Cannon, former student of the Ballarat School of Mines, c1916. Courtesy Federation University Historical Collection

Casualties

Between 1914 and 1918 53,993 Australians were killed or died in action, and 6,291 died as the result of non-battle causes. 155,133 were wounded, and 3,647 were Prisoners of War.[1]

Miners worked in appalling conditions and often contracted influenza and bronchitis by working in the damp atmosphere made worse by throat-choking dust. The miners at times were exposed to the putrefyting remains of previously fallen soldiers[2]

Poor candlelight combined with poor ventilation left many tunnellers with headaches, dizziness and permanent sight loss. Often candles would burn chery red from the depleted oxygen atmosphere.Working under low intensity lighting also caused an eye disorder called miners' nystagmus resulting in unsteadiness on the feet.[3]

Casualty Clearing Stations

Casualty Clearing Stations were usually established beyond the furthest range of the enemy artillery. [4]

1st Australian Casualty Clearing Station

2nd Australian Casualty Clearing Station

6th Australian Casualty Clearing Station

Hospitals

1st Australian General Hospital, Cairo

1st Australian General Hospital, France, established April 1916.

2nd Australian General Hospital, France

2nd British General Hospital, Le Havre

2nd Australian Stationary Hospital, Egypt

2nd Australian Auxiliary Hospital, England

3rd Australian Auxiliary Hospital, England

3rd Australian General Hospital, France

10th Stationary Hospital, St Omer, Northern France.

16th Australian General Hospital, aka Mont Park Repatriation Hospital

Australian Auxiliary Hospital, Luna Park, Cairo

Barnet War Hospital

1st A.G hospital, Sutton

Bethnal Green Military Hospital, London

Bath War Hospital

St Omer Military Hospital, c1917. Federation University Historical Collection (Gift of the Chatham Family).
Masked Ambulance Men Moving Wounded Through Ypres. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection
Stretcher-bearers Carrying Wounded Into Safety During the Battle of Menin Road. Courtesy Ballarat Heritage Services Picture Collection

Convalescent Homes

Mont Park Repatriation Hospital

No. 1 Rest Home, Wirth's Park, St Kilda Road, Melbourne.

Nurses

Candidates for appointment in the Australian Army Nursing Service (AANS) had to:

  • have at least three years’ training in medical and surgical Nursing in a duly recognised hospital
  • be aged 21 to 45 years
  • be either single or a widow.[5]

The rank structure in the AANS consisted of Matron-in-Chief, Principal Matron, Matrons, Sister and Staff Nurses, with the later two rank holders being addressed as Sister.[6]

The AANS uniform was modeled on the Queen Alexandra Imperial Military Nursing Service (QAIMNS). The grey serge frocks swept the ground, and their bonnets tied with bows under the chin. Later the AANS uniform was modernised and in 1917, a tailor made grey coat and skirt with grey blouse was allowed with grey gloves and a grey waterproof for inclement weather. At this time a grey felt hat with chocolate swathing was also introduced. The working uniform was a grey zephyr dress and white aprons and a red cape. During the summer months a uniform of white with a white linen hat and regulation chocolate band was available. [7]

In addition to service chevrons and a Commonwealth badge, colour patches were used to further identify the Sisters. Those in Salonika area wore a red triangle, in India a yellow vertical rectangle was worn, and for those unalloted an orange circle; in each instance the patch was worn on a chocolate diamond. Rank badges of oxydized copper were worn on each shoulder as follows: Matron-in-Chief a crown, Matron or Principal Matron three stars (pips); Sisters two stars and Staff Nurse one star.[8]

Nurses from the Ballarat Electorate

Leonora M. Allender - See https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Leonora_M._Allender

Margaret Anderson - See https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Margaret_Anderson

Sarah Bell - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Sarah_Bell

Gladys Charlotte Bennett - See https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Gladys_Charlotte_Bennett

Mary Lawrence Bentley - See https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Mary_Lawrence_Bentley

Ethel May Bolton- https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Ethel_May_Bolton

Isabella Tait Borwick - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Isabella_Tait_Borwick

Annie Louisa Brawn - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Annie_Louisa_Brawn

Gertrude Bullock - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Gertrude_Bullock

Marion Cameron - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Marion_Cameron

Lilian Cannon - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Lilian_Cannon

Hilda Cattanach - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Hilda_Cattanach

Emily Pauline Cherry - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Emily_Pauline_Cherry

Alice Elizabeth Cocking - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Alice_Elizabeth_Cocking

Isobel Kathleen Curnow - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Isobel_Kathleen_Curnow

Ethel Isabel David Davidson - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Ethel_Isabel_Davidson

Grace Maud Dickson - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Grace_Maud_Dickson

Anne Dunbar Dorrington - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Anne_Dunbar_Dorrington

Ethel Rose Douglas - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Ethel_Rose_Douglas

Tessa Guy Dunn - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Tessa_Guy_Dunn

Dorothea Furness - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Dorothea_Furness

Ethel Mary Anne Giddings

Laura Howarth - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Laura_Howarth

Bella Ion - http://bih/index.php/Bella_Ion

Ruby Bertha Just - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Ruby_Just

Louisa Keys

Mary Killeen - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Mary_Killeen

Emily Ethel May Knight - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Ruby_Just

Gladys Muriel Larkan

Annie Beatrice Lee-Brown - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Annie_B._Lee-Brown

Daisie Mary Llewellyn - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Daisy_M._Llewellyn

Bernice Ella Lord

Lily Mackenzie

Julia Elizabeth Marum

Adeline Marks

Jessie May Mathews - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/May_Matthews

Effie McLeod - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Effie_McLeod

Stella Marie Morris -

Mary Morrow - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Mary_Larkan_Morrow

Gertrude Evelyn Munro - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Gertrude_E._Munro

Inez Elsie Peady

Rachel Pratt - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Rachael_Pratt

Evelyn Maud Reid

Jessie Reeves - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Jessie_Reeves

Annie Florence Roberts - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Annie_R._Robert

Mary Elonie Rodger

Mary Alice Stella Semmens

Annie Serjeant - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Annie_Serjeant

Muriel Matthew Slater

Geraldine Smithwick - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Geraldine_Smithwick

Jean McFadyen - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Jean_McFadyen

Effie McLeod - see https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Effie_McLeod

Edith Taylor

Mary Jane Thomas - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Jane_Thomas

Lilian Rose Tyers

Florence Vines - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Florence_Vines

Bertha Watson Wallace

Annie Maynard Westcott

Lila Constance Whidburn - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Leila_Whidburn

Blodwyn Elizabeth Williams - https://bih.federation.edu.au/index.php/Blodwyn_Elizabeth_Williams

Valerie Henrietta Zichy-Woinarski

Also See

Ballarat School of Mines

Battle Fields

Pozieres

Repatriation

War Graves

References

  1. MacDougall, A.K., ANZACS: Australians at War, Currawong Press, Chatswood, New South Wales, 1991, p132.
  2. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  3. Thomas, Ross, Underground: A Tribute to the Tunnellers of the Great War 1914-1918, SP, 08 July 1994.
  4. The Ypres Salient, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, c2014,
  5. Smith, Neil C., The Australian Army Nursing Service - A Short History with World War One Nominal Roll and Awards Citations.
  6. Smith, Neil C., The Australian Army Nursing Service - A Short History with World War One Nominal Roll and Awards Citations.
  7. Smith, Neil C., The Australian Army Nursing Service - A Short History with World War One Nominal Roll and Awards Citations.
  8. Smith, Neil C., The Australian Army Nursing Service - A Short History with World War One Nominal Roll and Awards Citations.